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Leaky Gut Syndrome References

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1) Townsend Letter for Doctors, August/September 1995, p. 63. “Leaky Gut Syndromes: Breaking the Vicious Cycles.” Galland L. Online version available at

2) J Affect Disord. 2007 Apr;99(1-3):237-40.”Increased serum IgA and IgM against LPS of enterobacteria in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): indication for the involvement of gram-negative enterobacteria in the etiology of CFS and for the presence of an increased gut-intestinal permeability.” Maes M, Mihaylova I, Leunis JC.

3) Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Jun;29(3):313-9. “An IgM-mediated immune response directed against nitro-bovine serum albumin (nitro-BSA) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that nitrosative stress is another factor underpinning the comorbidity between major depression and CFS.” Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Leunis JC.

4) Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Feb;29(1):117-24.”The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression.” Maes M, Kubera M, Leunis JC.

5) Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Dec;29(6):902-10. “Normalization of leaky gut in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by a clinical improvement: effects of age, duration of illness and the translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria.” Maes M, Leunis JC.

6) Gastroenterology, 1989. 97(4): p. 927-31.”Intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn’s disease and their healthy relatives.” Katz, K.D.,et al.

7) Br Med J, 1982. 285(6334): p. 20-1. “Intestinal permeability in children with Crohn’s disease and coeliac disease.” Pearson, A.D., et al.,

 Dig Dis Sci, 1990. 35(5): p. 582-8. “Relationship between intestinal permeability to [51Cr]EDTA and inflammatory activity in asymptomatic patients with Crohn’s disease.” Pironi, L., et al.

9) Gut, 1994. 35(1): p. 68-72. “Intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis and their first degree relatives.” Munkholm, P., et al.,

10) Ann Intern Med, 1986. 105(6): p. 883-5. “Increased intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn’s disease and their relatives. A possible etiologic factor.” Hollander, D., et al.,

11) Gut, 1992. 33(3): p. 320-3. “Intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn’s disease and their first degree relatives.” Teahon, K., et al.,

12) Parasite. 2008 Sep;15(3):261-5 “Pathophysiology of enteric infections with Giardia duodenalius.” Buret AG.

13) Clin Exp Rheumatol, 1990. 8(1): p. 75-83. “A short review of the relationship between intestinal permeability and inflammatory joint disease.” Rooney, P.J., R.T. Jenkins, and W.W. Buchanan
14)Br J Rheumatol, 1987.26(2): p. 103-7. “Increased intestinal permeability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a side-effect of oralnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy?” Jenkins, R.T., et al.

15) Clin Exp Rheumatol, 1990. 8(5): p. 523-4.”Reflections on the link between intestinal permeability and inflammatory joint disease.”Mielants, H.

16) Gut, 1991. 32(12): p. 1470-2. “Increased intestinal permeability in ankylosing spondylitis–primary lesion or drug effect?” [see comments]. Morris, A.J., et al.

17) Rheumatol, 1985. 12(2): p. 299-305. “Abnormal bowel permeability in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis.”Smith, M.D., R.A. Gibson, and P.M. Brooks, J.

18) Rheum Dis Clin North Am, 1991. 17(2): p. 363-71.”Fasting, intestinal permeability, and rheumatoid arthritis.” Skoldstam, L. and K.E. Magnusson

19) Q J Med, 1985. 56(221): p. 559-67. “Small intestinal permeability in dermatological disease.” Hamilton, I., et al.

20) Gut. 1999 Jul;45(1):70-6 “Small intestinal transit, absorption, and permeability in patients with AIDS with and without diarrhoea.” Sharpstone D, Neild P, Crane R, Taylor C, Hodgson C, Sherwood R, Gazzard B, Bjarnason I.

21) Dig Liver Dis. 2010 Mar;42(3):200-4 “Intestinal permeability in patients with chronic liver diseases: Its relationship with the aetiology and the entity of liver damage.” Cariello R, Federico A, Sapone A, Tuccillo C, Scialdone VR, Tiso A, Miranda A, Portincasa P, Carbonara V, Palasciano G, Martorelli L, Esposito P, Cartenì M, Del Vecchio Blanco C, Loguercio C.

22) J. Pediatr., 1992. 120: p. 696-701. “Correlation of intestinal lactulose permeability with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.” Mack, D.R., et al.

23) Lancet, 1981. 1(8233): p. 1285-6. “Intestinal permeability in patients with eczema and food allergy.” Jackson, P.G., et al.

24) Digestion, 1989. 42(2): p. 104-9.”Intestinal permeability to 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetate in food-intolerant subjects.”Scadding, G., et al.

25) Lancet, 1981. i: p. 1285-1286. “Intestinal permeability in patients with eczema and food allergy.” Jacobson, P., R. Baker, and M. Lessof

26) Clin Allergy, 1986. 16(6): p. 543-51. “Gastrointestinal permeability in children with cow’s milk allergy: effect of milk challenge and sodium cromoglycate as assessed with polyethyleneglycols (PEG 400 and PEG 1000).” Falth-Magnusson, K., et al.

27) Clin Allergy, 1985. 15(6): p. 565-70. “Gastrointestinal permeability in atopic and non-atopic mothers, assessed with different-sized polyethyleneglycols (PEG 400 and PEG 1000).” Falth-Magnusson, K., et al.,

28) Clin Allergy, 1984. 14(3): p. 277-86. “Intestinal permeability in healthy and allergic children before and after sodium-cromoglycate treatment assessed with different-sized polyethyleneglycols (PEG 400 and PEG 1000).” Falth-Magnusson, K., et al.

29) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 1991. 88(5): p. 737-42. “Identical intestinal permeability changes in children with different clinical manifestations of cow’s milk allergy.” Jalonen, T.

30). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 1990. 11(1): p. 72-7. “Modifications of intestinal permeability during food provocation procedures in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.” Barau, E. and C. Dupont,

31) Ann Allergy, 1990. 64(4): p. 377-80.”Intestinal permeability in irritable bowel syndrome. Effect of diet and sodium cromoglycate administration.” Paganelli, R., et al.

32) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007 Feb;292(2):G518-25 “Increased intestinal permeability in obese mice: new evidence in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Brun P, Castagliuolo I, Di Leo V, Buda A, Pinzani M, Palù G, Martines D.

33) Gut. 2009 Aug;58(8):1091-103 “Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability.” Cani PD, Possemiers S, Van de Wiele T, Guiot Y, Everard A, Rottier O, Geurts L, Naslain D, Neyrinck A, Lambert DM, Muccioli GG, Delzenne NM.

34) Textbook of Natural Medicine, 3rd Edition, Volume 2, J. Pizzorno and M. Murray, editors, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, St. Louis, 2005, pp. 655-660. “Intestinal Protozoan Infestation and Systemic Illness”, Galland L.

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Dr. Leo Galland is a board-certified internist who is internationally recognized as a leader in nutritional medicine. He has written several dozen scientific papers, textbook chapters, and three highly acclaimed popular books, The Fat Resistance Diet, Power Healing and Superimmunity for Kids.

Jonathan Galland, co-creator of The Fat Resistance Diet, is a health writer and speaker who writes a weekly column for Carib News and is frequently interviewed on national radio shows including Martha Stewart Living.

This article is provided for general educational purposes only and is not intended to constitute medical advice or counseling, the practice of medicine or the provision of health care diagnosis or treatment, the creation of a physician-patient relationship, or an endorsement, recommendation, or sponsorship of any third party product or service by the sender or the sender's affiliates, agents, employees, or service providers. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, contact your doctor promptly.

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